Most business owners are familiar with the big three financial control documents: the Income (Profit & Loss) Statement; Cash-Flow Statement (or projection, when used for budget planning); and Balance Sheet. Those three statements are compiled monthly, quarterly and annually. They give useful insight into the fiscal health of the company. The smart business owner consults these statements each month, teases out the story that is revealed and makes decisions accordingly.
A fourth financial document, the Break-Even Analysis, provides forecasting information. The Break-Even is used when a new product or service will be introduced, or when a capital improvement or other upgrade is scheduled to be made. The Break-Even indicates the amount of sales revenue the product or service must generate to cover the roll-out costs associated with its introduction or acquisition and therefore, positioned to become a decision that pays off. A Break-Even is also generated when a new business venture is launched. The Break-Even allows the business leader to predict how long losses must be sustained and how to anticipate cash-flow comditions and management in response.
Break-Even is achieved when revenues = expenses; the business is neither making nor losing money. Business expenses are of two types, Fixed and Variable. Fixed Costs are the standard monthly operating costs and they are not impacted by sales revenue generated. Office space rent, insurance, utilities and payroll are Fixed Costs.
Variable Costs are largely tied to sales: product acquisition or manufacturing costs, inventory purchases, the cost of materials used to manufacture the products sold and all aspects of marketing and selling costs. As sales increase, Variable Costs increase proportionately, because more product must be purchased or manufactured to be available for sale. Total Expenses = Fixed + Variable Costs, as recorded on the Income Statement.
When calculating expenses, it is standard to determine the relationship of Variable Costs to sales revenues. The Variable Cost amount is divided by the number of product units sold, yielding the Variable Cost per Unit. In other words, Variable Costs = units sold X variable cost per unit. For the purpose of calculating Break-Even, Total Expenses = Fixed Costs + Variable Costs (expressed as units sold X variable cost per unit). As always, sales revenues = unit price X number of units sold.
The Break-Even Point is reached when
Price X Units Sold = (Units Sold X Variable Cost/Unit) + Fixed Costs
The difference between selling price per unit and the variable cost per unit sold reveals the amount that can be applied to Fixed Costs each time a unit is sold. Think of it this way: if monthly Fixed Costs are $2000 and the average price of your product units sold is $2, with an average Variable Cost of $1 each, when you sell a unit, you earn $1 to apply to Fixed Costs. With monthly Fixed Costs of $2000, Break-Even is reached when the business sells 2000 units per month.
Knowing how many units must be sold each month to achieve Break-Even is essential for effective financial management of the venture. One can also calculate Break-Even in terms of dollars that must be generated each month. In this example, Break-Even Revenue is achieved at $4000 in monthly sales, since the sales price is $2/unit and 2000 units must be sold each month to cover expenses.
A basic knowledge of the process of business financial calculations and the ability to interpret the data generated are must-have skills for all business owners and Freelance consultants. While it is true that one’s bookkeeper or accountant will perform the Break-Even on Quickbooks by plugging in numbers derived from the Income Statement, it is always in your best interest to understand how the calculations are made and how to make sense of what the financial documents reveal.
When it is proposed that a new product or service might be sold, which might be the development of a new workshop to propose and teach or some other intangible service, a Break-Even Analysis will indicate how many units must be sold, billable hours generated, or classes must be taught before the production costs will be re-couped and the new offering will be positioned to generate ROI.
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